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This tension between a role as a sexual object and as a sexually empowered subject created conflicting messages during a turbulent period. Eyeful magazine cover by Peter Dribben, The striking similarities between girdle pin-ups and the types of pin-ups that were circulated to men can be found by comparing a Bestform girdle ad with the cover of Eyeful drawn by Peter Dribben. However, the parallels between the Dribben pin-up and the Bestform pin-up provide an excellent starting point to emphasize the role of a girdle model as a pin-up. The Dribben illustration exemplifies previously outlined pin-up tropes.

She winks at the spectator in a tacit agreement that her appearance is constructed 43 Peter Dribben, Eyeful, January , cover.

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While the pin-up is on the phone—a popular theme which evokes the girl waiting at home for her man to call—her attention is focused on the presumably masculine viewer. Red also bears an erotic and romantic connotation, expressed through the vampy red lipstick and fingernails of popularized during the s. The thrilling combination of sex with sin and danger is represented by the red foreground and telephone. Uniting the symbolism of a sexually dangerous situation with the pin-up—a symbolic stand-in for the American woman whose physical perfection and virtue was augmented by American exceptionalism—was a common wartime theme.

Her girlish curls, ribbon and daisy earring give her an innocence that strengthens her appeal. In common with other pin-ups, her body proportions and positioning are key elements. Accessed 10 April, She thrusts her breasts and ribcage forward and sucks her waist in. Her legs are unrealistically rendered and seem overly round. Figure 2. Bestform ad illustrated by George Petty, Compared to the Bestform ad, similar stylistic choices reinforce the idea of girdle models as pin-ups Figure 2. Like the Eyeful pin-up she is on the phone and gazing back to smile at the viewer. Her hair is tied up in a scarf, a common way to protect pin curls before 45 George Petty for Bestform, This lends a subtle modesty that is missing from the Eyeful girl.

Like pin-ups, the position of her body also suggests posing for the benefit of the viewer. She is leaning on her elbow, slightly raising and turning her body so that her breast is more visible, while lifting her shoulder in a seductive, yet coy manner. In a Formfit girdle ad whose model bears a resemblance to Rita Hayworth, a popular Hollywood actress and wartime pin-up, themes of patriotism mingle with the image of the pin-up to define wartime feminine identity Figures 3.

The Formfit girl tilts her head to the side in a retiring way to counterbalance the sexualized pin-up pose with vulnerability and demureness often associated with undergarments. Hand on hip, her pelvis leans to the viewer in a vampy fashion. As with Varga and Petty Girls, she stands on tip-toe to elongate the leg and sculpt the muscles. The pointed inset on her girdle forms an arrow that draws attention to her genital area and the embroidered bra cups further eroticize her.

Clearly, girdle ads follow the same conventions that define pin-up art and are therefore pin-ups themselves. Accepting the pin-up as a construct of gendered notions of wartime femininity and extending the definition of pin-up to include girdle advertisements, girdle ads may be read as sites of gender construction for women during WWII. Depictions of women in recruitment ads and the military, where WAVES regulation required wearing lipstick to match the cord on your hat, tempered masculinization of women with femininity.


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Girdle ads were no exception to this imperative. The government linked attractiveness to both gender identity and to patriotism, and the commodified ideal represented by girdle ads echoed this sentiment.

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Knowledge of automobile repair, considered a decidedly masculine pursuit, necessitates an emphasis of the remaining ad pictures upon femininity. While many girdle ads focused upon fighting such fatigue, the Munsingwear ad is concerned with femininity, figure perfection and wartime alternatives to elastic. The second image strips the WAC of her military uniform and presents her as fully feminized.

A toothbrush replaces the wrench, establishing that her masculinization was temporary. Her setting is not just the home, but the bathroom, bringing to mind the importance of grooming, beauty and appearance to the status of this figure and reinforcing her femininity. Her hair is elegant and is accessorized with jewelry and makeup. Perhaps she is preparing for a date, a possible indication that her femininity can be determined in relation to men and one that also links her to the pin-up.

Her role as a WAC and her devotion to the male soldier have an equal patriotic weight. She stands deep in thought, uncertain about the future. Judith Butler, Gender Trouble, , The depiction of light and shadow suggests linear past, present, future. The woman is caught between, reflecting on her role. The accompanying text refers to the popular social embarrassment ads that claim certain products can help one avoid social disgrace. Here an uncontrolled figure caused the WAC to get the not-so-subtle hint from an anonymous friend to buy a Munsingwear Foundette.

The third image embroiders upon the themes of the second. The woman is applying lipstick on her parted, erotic lips. Putting on cosmetics is an ultra-feminine act and putting lipstick on is a sexualized act. She has become rendered down exclusively to the sensuality of her mouth. Finally, she stands with her back to the viewer, half-nude, her vulnerability and sexuality bound up within her Munsingwear girdle.

Girdle and pin-up art also tempered the luxurious and elegant side of beauty with sacrifice for the war effort. This dichotomy plays to the class tensions between the middle and upper-class girls depicted in pin-up art that took a style cue from Hollywood actresses and the working class aesthetic of Rosie the Riveter Figure 5.


  1. OATD: Brown, Kathryn M. - Patriotic Support: The Girdle Pin-Up of World War II.
  2. Emotional Balance: The Path to Inner Peace and Harmony.
  3. Consuming Underwear: Fashioning Female Identity.
  4. Stilettos to Pom-Poms;
  5. In she reached out to Trump's campaign to get a job as a makeup artist and sell her men's cosmetic product line. She later said, "Yes, I had moved on but had not forgotten the pain [Trump] brought into my life. I was older, wiser. Trump was married to Melania and I had hoped he was a changed man. Of the experience, she said: "I'm a makeup artist. The guy is a mess, OK? He really needed my services, and I'm a makeup artist that needs a job. Why would, if I was on friendly terms, why wouldn't I try to get that job?

    Harth's lawsuit was first published in February by LawNewz. Summer Zervos was a contestant on the fifth season of The Apprentice , which filmed in and aired in Zervos has said that Trump was sexually suggestive during their meeting, kissing her open-mouthed, groping her breasts, [35] and thrusting his genitals on her. John Barry, her cousin and a Trump supporter, has said that Zervos talked to her family and friends about Trump, promoting his candidacy and stating how Trump had helped her out in her life.

    Barry said that during the presidential primary campaign, Zervos invited Trump to her restaurant, and he declined. He will know my intentions are genuine. On January 17, , Zervos filed a defamation lawsuit against Trump, arising from his statement that she had lied about the allegations. Trump touched her inappropriately". On February 25, , Alva Johnson filed a lawsuit against Trump, alleging he had forcibly kissed her at a rally in Florida in August while she was working on his presidential campaign. She declared sick days until she could speak to a lawyer.

    In addition to the "unwanted sexual attention", the lawsuit also alleges that Johnson was "a victim of race and gender discrimination through unequal pay. For the article, Times reporters Michael Barbaro and Megan Twohey conducted 50 interviews with women who had known Trump socially, during their professional career, or while modeling or competing for a beauty pageant title.

    Their accounts—many relayed here in their own words—reveal unwelcome romantic advances, unending commentary on the female form, a shrewd reliance on ambitious women, and unsettling workplace conduct, according to the interviews, as well as court records and written recollections. The interactions occurred in his offices at Trump Tower, at his homes, at construction sites and backstage at beauty pageants.

    They appeared to be fleeting, unimportant moments to him, but they left lasting impressions on the women who experienced them. Other women interviewed for the story, a few of whom had worked for Trump, stated they had not received unwanted advances and "they had never known Mr. Trump to objectify women or treat them with disrespect. Laura Kirilova Chukanov , a Bulgarian immigrant and Miss USA pageant contestant, said that Trump helped her make connections for a documentary that she was working on about her home country. Rowanne Brewer Lane, Trump's former girlfriend, was quoted at length in the article and was featured in the opening anecdote.

    Following the article's publication, Brewer Lane accused The New York Times of taking her quotes out of context and said that she was "flattered" and not insulted by Trump. Trump spokesperson Barry Bennett responded to the story by stating: "They talked to 50 women and managed to put seven or eight in the story. Over half of them had great things to say. The one that had great things to say, they twisted it and called her debased which is not how she feels. Two days before the second presidential debate , the Access Hollywood tape was released, which records Trump having "an extremely lewd conversation about women" in which he described being able to kiss and grope women because he was "a star": "You know I'm automatically attracted to beautiful—I just start kissing them.

    It's like a magnet. Just kiss. I don't even wait. And when you're a star, they let you do it, you can do anything You can do anything. On October 7, Trump released a video statement in which he stated, "I said it, I was wrong, and I apologize. Republican critics called on him to withdraw from the presidential race. During the second debate, Anderson Cooper asked Trump if he understood that he had bragged about sexually assaulting women.

    Cooper used the Justice Department's sexual assault definition to include "any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without the explicit consent of the recipient. In the early s, Leeds was a businesswoman at a paper company on a flight from the Midwest, returning to New York. A flight attendant offered her an empty seat in the first-class cabin next to Trump.

    Leeds alleged that about 45 minutes after takeoff, Trump lifted the armrest and began touching her, grabbing her breasts, and tried to put his hand up her skirt. It was an assault. Trump spokesman Jason Miller responded to the allegation calling it "fiction. Gilberthorpe has previously made false allegations against politicians [76] and has been previously accused of making "advances of an intimate nature" towards Conservative students.

    An aspiring model at the time of the alleged incident, Anderson told the story to her friends, and decided to come forward after reading accounts of other women who had done so. In late June , E. Jean Carroll , writer, former Miss Indiana University and former Miss Cheerleader USA, claimed in a New York magazine cover story that she was sexually assaulted by Trump in a Bergdorf Goodman department store dressing room in late or early Carroll wrote that they had met by chance in the department store, where he recognized her as "that advice lady", and that Trump had asked her to advise him on a present for "a girl".

    Trump took her to the lingerie section, where no one was around. Trump asked her to try on a piece of lingerie and took her to a dressing room; there he pushed her against a wall, causing her to hit her head "quite badly"; then he allegedly forcibly kissed her. Carroll then said, "he After a struggle, she said she escaped from the dressing room and left the store. She said the incident lasted for no more than three minutes.

    Carroll wrote that Bergdorf Goodman no longer had security tapes from that period and that she did not report the incident to the police, but that also she had told two friends of hers. One told Carroll that she had been raped and to make a police report. The other told Carroll, "Tell no one. Forget it! He has lawyers.

    Trump has given multiple responses, including: "she's not my type" and also saying he never met her. The two friends Carroll had confided in was revealed by the New York Times to be writer Lisa Birnbach and news anchor Carol Martin , when they and Carroll appeared on the podcast of the New York Times taped on June 26, , which narrated the following events: Carroll had remained silent for so long because she partially blamed herself for the incident, though she eventually stopped blaming herself.

    Carroll refused to say she was "raped", instead choosing to describe it thus: "My word is fight. My word is not the victim word Something has not been done to me. I fought. Boyne alleged that Trump made the models walk across the table, looked under their skirts, and described if they were wearing underwear. Morgan told The Huffington Post that the dinner took place with those participants, did not recall lewd behaviour by Trump, and said: "But I have been known to dance on tables.

    The Huffington Post contacted Beatrice, who denied any such call. On October 15, , The Guardian reported an allegation by Cathy Heller that she was grabbed and kissed by Donald Trump two decades earlier. Her parents-in-law were members of Mar-a-Lago. Heller was introduced to Trump, who became angry when she avoided a kiss. He then "grabbed" her and, when he tried to kiss her, she turned her head.

    Trump kissed her on the side of the mouth "for a little too long" and then he left her. Heller's husband and children, who were present during the event, have corroborated her account. In the summer of , the members of Heller's mahjong group heard Heller's account of the incident; this was not long after Trump announced his candidacy.

    Heller is a registered Democrat, and public supporter of Hillary Clinton. Trump campaign spokesperson Jason Miller stated that Heller's account is "false" and "politically motivated". According to McDowell, a chaperone had accompanied her to Trump's office. You have the right to get out of there. You have the right to leave, and you have the right to make them feel uncomfortable if they're making you feel uncomfortable," she said.

    Trump stated that he does not know her and denied McDowell's claims. Taggart McDowell stated that she is a Republican, and not coming out with the allegation in order to support Hillary Clinton. At an October press conference with attorney Gloria Allred , yoga instructor and life coach Karena Virginia stated that in , Trump grabbed her arm and touched her breast. Virginia continued, "Then his hand touched the right side of my breast. I was in shock.

    I flinched. Don't you know who I am? I felt intimidated and I felt powerless. Trump campaign spokesperson Jessica Ditto responded to the allegation with a statement reading in part, "Discredited political operative Gloria Allred, in another coordinated, publicity seeking attack with the Clinton campaign, will stop at nothing to smear Mr.

    I think it's [my friend Ken Davidoff's] camera bag, that was my first instinct. I turn around and there's Donald.

    An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Fields)

    He sort of looked away quickly. McGillivray said that she "chose to stay quiet" [68] and never reported the incident to authorities. She had only shared details of the incident with close family and friends until she heard Trump deny such behavior during the second presidential debate on October 9, Ken Davidoff's brother, Darryl Davidoff, said that he was also present at the time at Mar-a-Lago, and stated that in his opinion McGillivray is lying. Nobody saw it happen and she just wanted to be in the limelight. In early October , Grazia reported an allegation by Jennifer Murphy , a former contestant on the fourth season of The Apprentice.

    Murphy said that in , after Trump had recently married Melania Knauss , she had a job interview with Trump. When she was leaving, Trump kissed her on the lips, which took her by surprise. Murphy said that Trump had offered her job interviews a day after she had left The Apprentice , that she ultimately declined his job offer, and that she would still vote for Trump in the election.

    In , Rachel Crooks was a year-old receptionist at Bayrock Group , a real estate investment and development company in Trump Tower in Manhattan. She says she encountered Trump in an elevator in the building one morning and turned to introduce herself. They shook hands, but Trump would not let go. Instead, he began kissing her cheeks, then directly on the mouth. Canadian author and journalist Natasha Stoynoff, who wrote for People magazine and, previously, the Toronto Star and Toronto Sun , went to Trump's Florida estate in December to interview him and his wife, Melania.

    While there, Trump gave Stoynoff a tour of the Mar-a-Lago estate. She says that during this tour, he pushed her against a wall and forced his tongue into her mouth. Stoynoff described the alleged episode, "We walked into that room alone, and Trump shut the door behind us. I turned around, and within seconds he was pushing me against the wall and forcing his tongue down my throat I was stunned.

    And I was grateful when Trump's longtime butler burst into the room a minute later, as I tried to unpin myself. Trump sent out a tweet on October 13, , in which he said it had not happened and wondered why she had not mentioned the event in her People article of Until that point, she said, she had conflicting emotions common among victims of assault, combined with embarrassment and confusion. Heyman, People ' s deputy editor, said: "It was disorienting for her.

    She felt a great deal of worry and distress about it. Then she felt angry.

    Epub An Intimate Affair Women Lingerie And Sexuality

    That same day, Melania's lawyer demanded an apology from People magazine, stating that Melania did not say some or all of what was quoted in the People article by Stoynoff published on October 12, ; Melania specifically denied Stoynoff's claim that she'd run into her on Fifth Avenue following the article's publication. The following day, People published the account of Liza Herz.

    Herz said she witnessed the sidewalk encounter between Stoynoff and Melania Trump; Herz' account corroborated that of Stoynoff. On October 18, People produced six corroborating witnesses who said Stoynoff had recounted the incident to them around the time that it occurred. Trump's former butler at Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida, Anthony Senecal , 85, was asked about the incident in which Stoynoff alleged that the butler "burst in" on Trump when she was pinned down by him; Senecal denied that ever happened, stating that as a butler "I don't burst in.

    I knock, then I go in, usually after someone says 'come in'," further alleging "And when I went in, there was nothing strange about where she was standing. In early December , the reporter Juliet Huddy said that Trump kissed her on the lips while they were on an elevator in Trump Tower with Trump's security guard in or Regarding this incident, Huddy said "I was surprised that he went for the lips.

    But I didn't feel threatened Whatever, everything was fine. It was a weird moment. He never tried anything after that, and I was never alone with him. On October 22, , Jessica Drake and attorney Gloria Allred held a news conference in which Drake accused Trump of having sexually assaulted her by grabbing tightly in a hug and kissed her and two acquaintances nearly ten years prior. Drake, an adult film actress and sex education advocate, said that she met Trump at her company's booth during a charity golf tournament at Lake Tahoe in Drake claims that she was invited to meet with Trump, who was married at the time, at his hotel suite; she was "uncomfortable going alone" and brought two friends.

    Describing the meeting with Trump, Drake recounted that "He grabbed each of us tightly, in a hug and kissed each one of us without asking permission. She said she declined his offers. During the news conference, Drake said, "I am not looking for monetary compensation. I do not need additional fame I understand that I may be called a liar or an opportunist but I will risk that in order to stand in solidarity with women who share similar accounts.

    In response to Drake's allegations, the Trump campaign stated that her story is "false and ridiculous", that "[t]he picture is one of thousands taken out of respect for people asking to have their picture taken with Mr. Trump" but Trump did not know Drake and "would have no interest in ever knowing her," and that the story was "just another attempt by the Clinton campaign to defame a candidate. Amanda Prestigiacomo, writing in The Daily Wire , has criticized Drake for suggesting that being greeted with a hug and a kiss without permission is "sexual assault".

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